«No» is a 2012 film directed by Chilean Pablo Larrain. The film tells the No campaign in the 1988 plebiscite, Chile and features a cast led by Gael García Bernal, Alfredo Castro, Luis Gnecco and Nestor Cantillana. In January 2013, he became the first Chilean film nominated for Oscar for «Best Foreign Film».
The campaign was designed to show the option of not as a valid alternative to deal with Pinochet, who led the Yes option in the 1988 plebiscite, held on October 5, overcame the opposition (the total votes counted, the Yes obtained 43.01% and No, 54.71%). The win prevented Pinochet remained in power until 1997. The following year there were elections, marking the return of democracy in Chile on March 11, 1990. All advertising on television was critical to the success of the No option
Pablo Larrain recognized that on tape «there is a lot of nostalgia, the plebiscite of 5 October ’88 vertex is a date, a date hinge, is around the bend of Chilean history stuck there, at least the recent ‘. For the director, the «key» of the tape is «how a group of people take the tools created, imposed by the dictatorship, these social and even political tools, and uses them to create a discourse that can finally defeat Pinochet» .
For the first time in Chilean history, television slots were made for both political positions. One month after the referendum, on Monday, September 5 at 23:00, came the first spots of 15 minutes each.
«After a few days no one could ignore the obvious technical superiority of the strip of No: better plot construction, best film, best music. Their signature tune, around the phrase» Joy is coming «was so sticky, creative that even the Yes campaign in the brainstorming meetings unconsciously humming. »
Sergio Fernandez, Minister of the Interior.
The logo was a rainbow coalition that sought to symbolize the union of all political opponents and the desire for a better future. Although the campaign had raw accounts of human rights violations, the campaign had positive features, trying to emphasize that the victory of the «No» does not necessarily imply a socialist government of Salvador Allende as.
On Thursday 22 September the «No» began the «March of Joy ‘, who completed 10 days with hundreds of thousands of people in demonstrations and rallies interrupted, starting from Arica and Puerto Montt to Santiago converge.
According to a survey conducted CEP at that time, among the reasons for the majority to vote «No» poor economic conditions prevailed (72%), rather than human rights (57%), due to the 20% unemployment that existed during the military government.
On the morning of election day, an uneasy calm prevailed in over 22,000 open tables throughout the country, to stop receiving more than 7,435,913 voters. In the afternoon, start to be problems at the polls, the huge crowds occur that prevents entering the premises to cover. The situation is normalized around 15:00. By 1600, most of the country has voted and returned to their homes waiting for the computations and with some trepidation. To this we must add that television cartoon show for much of the day, adding to the misinformation.
In the afternoon and evening reports of scrutiny given to official partial If the winner by a slim margin. However, independent reports differ by NOT giving the winner: the Committee for Free Elections delivers a new report, in which the «Yes» gets 44.6% vs 55.2% of the option «No». Commanders in Chief of the Armed Forces and the Police are informed by his subordinates that «No» is defeating the «Yes» at the tables, forcing them to request a meeting with Pinochet, which he rejects.
At 2100, Command spokesman No, Genaro Arriagada, announces the computations that has its command: the «Yes» exceeds 41%, while the «No» gets 58.7% of the votes. An hour later Cardemil, the Government subscretario delivers a new computer, this time based on 677 tables, «Yes» and 51.3% «No», 46.5%. Meanwhile, the National Directorate of Social Communication (DINACOS) receives that same time, the order to immediately close any radio or television transmission to convene a celebration of the victory of the «No».
At 2300, Cardemil meets with General Pinochet, informing him that the ‘No’ has more than 53% of the votes so far, it already is insurmountable. Several National Renewal personeros Cardemil speak with a member of that party, and inform you that they are not willing to engage in a lack of results.
Sergio Onofre Jarpa, president of National Renewal, should participate in a program that would analyze the results of the plebiscite, with Patricio Aylwin on Channel 13 at 22.00, but the delay of the results fell behind the program was finally set for midnight. Jarpa, fearful of facing no data to Aylwin, who was to deliver the data of the Opposition, is contacted Cardemil, saying: «You are not going to pay for any lesera, no?» (Referring to further delay computations). Cardemil told that «Yes» was losing, but there were still counting ballots from the tables of women santiaguinas.
Jarpa assumed then, they had been defeated and went to Channel 13 to give such information, corroborated with the data carried Aylwin. Celebrations begin supporters of «No», while La Moneda is cordoned off.
At 00.18 on Thursday, October 6, Pinochet meets with his ministers and informs them: «Gentlemen, the referendum was lost. Want their resignations immediately. That’s all.» An hour later, finally meets with members of the Governing Board. On their way to the Palace of La Moneda, the Commander in Chief of the Chilean Air Force, Fernando Matthei told reporters: «I have pretty clear who has won the No, but we are calm.»
According to what he said in his memoirs Matthei («Matthei, my testimony»), Pinochet would have given members of the Board of a decree by which he would assume all the power to not recognize the results of the plebiscite. This would have angered members of the Board, especially Matthei, which states that broke the record with his own hands. «After that, and without insisting on the record, the President told us that he would leave to rest for a few days out of Santiago and the meeting adjourned,» Matthei counting ends in his book.
At that time, the chief of staff has a heart attack due to the heated confrontation between military leaders. After the meeting, Pinochet ordered accepts the situation and publish the third count.
At 2.00 am, the undersecretary Cardemil appears before the media and announced the final tally: the «Yes» gets 43% versus 54.7% ‘No’.
On the morning of Thursday, October 6, thousands of Chileans take to the streets to celebrate the victory of the «No» in their respective cities. During that night, Pinochet delivered a report which recognizes the victory of the «No» and continue the process outlined by the 1980 Constitution.
That same day, the Coalition reported to Pope John Paul II that Chile had returned to democracy.
(Taken from Wikipedia.es)